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英中对照科技英语的语气特点

时间:2020-10-29 12:43:36 浏览:0

Grammatical Features of EST : Mood


一、Subjunctive Mood


In scientific and technical English,the subjunctive mood is widely used to describe hypothetical conditions. Hypothesis has two types-true hypothesis and false hypo-thesis. True hypothesis express the hope, wish and supposition of the writer. It indicates that the writer thinks that the condition is possible to be fulfilled. False hypothesis indicates that the writer thinks that the condition is unlikely to be fulfilled or it did not happen at all.




1. True Hypothesis


a. Possibility


In this case the hypothetical condition may be fulfilled. This type of hypothesis is used in scientific methods of research. It is used to reach conclusion. Example:


“A farmer has to cross a river one day with a dog, a sheep and some hay. The only boat he has is so small that he can only get one animal or the hay into it besides himself. The farmer knows that the dog is liable to attack sheep and that the sheep cannot resist eating hay. How does the farmer manage to get himself,the animals and the hay across the river safely?


The farmer now has several alternatives. Two of them are expressed in the following hypotheses :


First hypothesis; the farmer takes the sheep, leaving the dog and the hay together. What will be the consequence?


If the farmer takes the sheep, leaving the dog and the hay together, it will be a safe way.


Second hypothesis: the farmer takes the dog,leaving the sheep and the hay. What consequence can you deduce?


If the farmer takes the dog, leaving the sheep and hay, the hay will be eaten up by the sheep.


The farmer has to cross the river four times. He must take the sheep first. Then he takes the dog,returns with the sheep leaves (he sheep and takes the hay. Finally he takes the sheep and crosses the river again. That will be the safest way.


As can be seen from the above example, hypotheses are provisional explanations which are based on observation and can be tested by further observation. We can show this process as follows ;problem→observations→hypothesis (provisional explanation of relations between facts) →deductions from the hypothesis→evidence for or against the hypothesis→conclusion.




b. General Truths


Examples; If water becomes very cold, it freezes. If ice is placed in the sun,it melts.


These statements without reference to any particular time are true all the time. We use here the Simple Present tense in both clauses of the above examples.


2. False Hypothesis


a. Unlikeness


In this type of hypothesis, although the condition might happen, it probably will not. It is also used when referring to something that we regard as untrue. It is an unreal supposition.


Examples :


If a researcher performed an experiment (hypothesis), it might (could) be a failure (possibility only).


If all the ice in the world melted (possibility only), the level of the sea would rise about 250 ft (inevitable result).


If I were you, I should not do that. (untrue)


b. Non-occurance


In this kind of condition, we are referring to something in the past that did not happen. The supposition is impossible. Example :


If we had known the basic principles (we didn't know), we would have controlled the process even better.




二、Imperative Mood 


1. Instructions


The imperative mood is often used to give impersonal instructions to operators, employees , etc. It is often used for experimental or handling instructions, and in hypotheses or calculations.


Instructions may be given in two ways——


a. Using“should”


Examples: These machines should he handled with great care. Safety precautions should be observed at all times. The results of the experiment should be plotted on a graph.


N, B. This is sometimes used for politeness when“must be”is really meant.




b. Using the imperative form of the verb


Examples: Allow the water to cool for ten minutes and then take the temperature. Hold the convex lens is front of the white paper. Calculate the amount of expansion which will take place. Consider a steam chamber of high pressure and imagine its pressure to be x 1b/in². Let x equal the number of revolutions per minute. Suppose the water is drawn directly from a river. Assume that there is no Loss of heat from the boiler.




2. Advice or Recommendations


Instructions can be changed into advice or recommendations in order to explain how something should be done, or to explain the best or safest way of doing something.


a. Instructions


Examples: Grip handles as far as possible from blades. Hold cutting blades at right angles to workpiece. Align blades with cutting line. Do not completely close shears in one cut.


b. Advice or recommendations


Examples: You should grip the handles as far as possible from the blades. You should hold the cutting blades at right angles to the workpiece. You should align the blades with the cutting line. You should not completely close the shears in any one cut. Or: The handles should be gripped as far as possible from the blades. The cutting blades should be held at right angles to the workpiece. The blades should be aligned with the cutting line. The shears should not be completely closed in any one cut.


3. Rules


Recommendations can be made stronger by using "must" instead of "should". Strong recommendations often become rules, and therefore must be obeyed. Examples.


Rules for Brazing


a. The surface must be cleaned.


b. Flux must be applied.


c. The temperature of the work must be high enough to melt the spelter.


d. The two surfaces must be kept at the same temperature.


e. The work must cool evenly to prevent cracking.


参考译文


科技英语的语法特点:语气


—、虚拟语气


虚拟语气在科技英语中广泛用来描述假设条件。假设有两种——真实假设和非真实假设。真实假设表达作者的希望、意思和推测,它表示作者认为这种条件是可能实现的,面非真实假设则表示这种条件是不太可能实现的,成者是很本不会发生的。




1. 真实假设 


a. 可能性


在这种情况下,假设条件可能实现。这种假设用于描述科学研究的方法,用来导出结论。


例如:一天,有位农夫要带一条狗、一只羊和一些牧草过河。农夫唯有的一条船太小,除了装下他本人之外. 只能再装下其中一个动物或牧草。农夫知道,狗是要咬羊的,羊又是忍不住要吃草的。那么,这位农夫怎样才能设法使他本人还有那两个动物和牧草安全过河呢?




农夫当时有几种选择,其中两个用下述假设来表示:


第一个假设:农夫先把羊带走,而把狗和牧草一起留下来,结果是什么呢?


如果农夫先把羊带走,而把狗和牧草一起留下来,这是一个安全的方法。


第二个假设:农夫先把狗带走,而把羊和牧草留下,可能导致什么结果呢?


如果农夫先把狗带走,而把羊和牧草留下,牧草即会被羊吃光。


所以,农夫得过四次河。他先得把羊带走,而后把狗带走,把羊带回。留下羊再带走牧草,最后再带上羊过河,这是个最安全的方法。




从上例可以看出,假设就是假定的解释说明,既是根据观察的结果作出的,又可以通过进一步的观察来检验。可以把这个过程表示成:问題→观察→假设(对事实之间关系的假定说明)→从假设出发得出的描论→证明假设的证据或与假设相对立的证据→结论。




b. 一般真理


例如:如果水变得很冷的话,水就会冻成冰。如果把冰放在阳光下,冰就会融化。


这些不涉及到具体时间的陈述在任何时候都是正确的,因此,我们在上两例的从句中都用了一般理在时。


2. 非真实假设 


a. 不太可能发生的事


在这类假设中,尽管假设条件有可能发生,但它大概不会发生,当指某件我们认为是不真实的事情时也用它。这类假设是不现实的推测。


例如:如果研究人员做实验(假设条件),可能不会做成(只是可能性)。


如果全世界所有的冰都融化的话(只是可能性),那么,海洋的水位会上升约250英尺(不可避免的结果)。


要是我是你的话,我不会做那件亊。(不真实条件)




b. 没有发生的事


在这类条件中,指的是过去没有发生过的事情。这种推测是不可能实现的。


例如:要是原先就知道基本原理的话(我们原来并不知道),我们本来是会更好地控制这一过程的。




二、祈使语气


1. 指示或命令


祈使语气常用来给操作人员和雇员等下达非人称指示成命令。常用在实验说明或装卸说明中,还用在假设或计算中。


指示或命令可用两种方式给出:


a. 用 “should”(应)


例如:装卸这些机器应极其小心。应时时遵守安全措施。实验结果应描绘在图上。


注意:为了礼貌起见。在实际意义上该用must be (必须)的场合,有时也用这种形式。




b. 用动词的祈使式


例如:让水冷却十分钟后再测水温。在白纸前方架一个凸透镜。计算将发生的膨胀量。考虑一个髙压蒸汽室, 并想象其压力为x磅/英寸²。令x等子每分转数,假定直接从河里抽取水。餒定锅炉没有任何热损失。




2. 劝告或建议


为了解释应该怎样做某事,或解释做某事的最好或最安全的方法,可把指示或命令改变成劝告或建议。




a. 指示或命令


例如:在离剪刀口尽可能远的地方握紧剪刀把;让刀口间工件成直角,对准剪切线;不要在一次剪切中把剪刀完全合拢。


b. 劝告或建议


例如:应在离剪刀口尽可能远的地方握紧剪刀把;让刀口同工件成直角,对准剪切线;不应在一次萸切中就把剪刀完全合拢。


或者:(译文同上)


3. 规则


用must(必须)取代should(应该),可把建议的语气加强,而语气很强的建议就成为规则,因而必须得以遵守。例如:


铜焊规则


a. 焊接面必须淸洗干净;


b. 必须使用焊剂;


c. 工件的温度必须高到能熔化焊锡;


d. 两焊面必须保持相同的温度;


e. 工件必须均匀冷却以防破裂。

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